Science is essentially about studying our physical universe. God, I believe, is the creator of this universe. God is therefore not part of that universe, not subject to scientifical laws, and not really something that science can or does study. Science, therefore, can neither prove nor disprove God.
I would suggest that our scientific knowledge can be used to provide evidence for God. There are certainly some gaps in our scientific theories about how the universe came about and how life formed. For example, I don’t believe there is currently any satisfactory scientific understanding for how the big bang started, or for how the first cell came about. I recently read an interview in the magazine ‘Third Way’, where Lewis Wolpert, a respected atheist professor of cell biology, admitted that science didn’t currently know these things (see some extracts here). He thought that they would in time however, and I have to admit that science has never known everything and is always making new discoveries. I also think that to believe that such a beautiful, complex and well-structured world came about of its own cause, and by chance, is hard to believe. But none of this is scientific proof.
On the other side atheists often say that there is no evidence for God. I would dispute this – I think there’s lots of evidence for God’s existence, but it depends what sort of evidence you’re looking for. If you’re looking for scientific evidence, then I’ve already argued that science cannot be expected to give much ‘evidence’, as God is outside the realm of the physical universe which is what science studies. And things that Christians would argue were caused by God, for which science currently has no explanation, are explained away by saying that science will have an answer one day. Other scientists would point to the miraculous and supernatural in the Bible and orthodox Christian belief and suggest that we can’t believe these as they are ‘unscientific’. But this is like saying that the only God you are willing to accept is one that is not God, bound by creation and not a creator. So there is nothing in science which is contrary to a Christian belief, and it certainly does not disprove the existence of God, or disprove the Bible.
Personally, however, I would say that my reasons for believing in my faith are similar to my reasons for believing in science. All science started, ultimately, in everyday observations. Indeed the belief that there were scientific laws to be discovered came ultimately from everyday experiences, for example, that apples always seemed to fall towards the ground, and that they always seemed to speed up in the same way. Laws were developed from common observations and were tested by further experiments and practical observation of the results. Laws were then combined and logic, reason and mathematics used to extend them deductively. But at the heart of all science is ordinary ‘observation’ of the world around, combined with further testing of those observations.
In a very real way, faith may also start and grow at least in part from our everyday observations. We see God’s impact in the world around us, in people’s lives, when we pray and it’s answered, when we read the Bible and it seems remarkably relevant to life for a book written millenia ago. When we put our faith in God it is then tested further and God’s reality is proved true in life’s experiences. So my faith is not scientifically provable, but it does have at its base the same sort of personal evidence which was there at the start of science as well.